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05.05 17:51 - Bulgarian History up to the 12th century through the view of the ancient authors
Автор: historybg2018 Категория: История   
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Последна промяна: 16.06 11:26

Постингът е бил сред най-популярни в категория в Blog.bg
Dear friends of Bulgarian history,


in 2015 came out

Българска история до XII век през погледа на старите автори, 2015, Николай Иванов Колев, ISBN 978-3-00-048101-7, Издателство ГУТА-Н, София, 860 стр. от които 101 цветни. 3.010 kg.

and in 2017 its translation into German

Die bulgarische Geschichte bis zum 12. Jahrhundert aus der Sicht der alten Autoren, Nikolay Ivanov Kolev, 2017, ISBN 978-3-00-048101-7, Sofia. 930 Seiten davon 130 in Farbe. 2.609 kg

The Russian translation of this book was published in 2022:

Болгарская история до XII века глазами старых авторов, Николай Иванов Колев, ISBN 978-3-00-048101-7, Издательство ГУТА-Н, София, 942 стр., из них 124 в цвете. Цена 250 лв.


Now, I am pleased to present the release of the English translation of this book: 

Bulgarian History up to the 12th century through the view of the ancient authors, Nikolay Ivanov Kolev, ISBN 978-3-00-048101-7, GUTA-N Publishing House, Sofia, 2022, 894 pages,121 of them are in color. Price 250 BGN.






1. Foreword

In numerous conversations with my children who grew up in Germany, questions like "Who are we, the Bulgarians, and who created the Bulgarian state?" always came up. My children are intelligent and over the years it became clear that what I had learned at school, although I was always an excellent student, was not enough to answer these seemingly easy questions. Between 1944 and 1990 there was a chronic shortage of truth in Bulgaria, not that it was lacking, but somehow it did not reach us. After 1990, we experienced an explosion of historical publications, many of which expressed a fascination with the freedom to publish, which was lacking before, rather than the ability to think analytically before publishing. Over time this too has changed, a new generation of historians is now working and publishing and many of them think history textbooks should be re-written, but this is not yet happening. So, I remain indebted to my children with the answers to the above two questions, and while I"m still breathing, I wish I could change that situation.

The object which I pursue in the present book is to collate the information which has come down to us from the old writers, and to draw some conclusions concerning the people who extended the Bulgarian state into the Balkans, without the benefit of the numerous modern books which I have read, and which fill my library. This I do not out of lack of respect for the immense work of modern Bulgarian literary men and historians, but out of a desire to make an independent assessment of events and independent conclusions about the interconnectedness and sequence of events and their consequences, reading only the old authors.

By old authors I mean contemporaries of the events or those who described them after them. Such, for example, are the authors who wrote in Greek in Byzantium and in Latin in the Western Roman Empire. Authors working 100-200 years or more after the events being described often use older authors. However, they also tell us what the relationship is between events and life in the old and more recent times. Contemporaries are better informed in detail, and later authors have a better view of the general context of events and their outcomes. This is a very important source of information to orient one among the many different events and the names of the peoples involved in them.

Dear reader, allow me in this place to mention that I do not write a history, it is written with the actions of our ancestors. My modest task is to collect and arrange what is known in such order that you can create your own idea of Bulgaria"s past. I am aware of the risk of this endeavor and ask for leniency.

In writing this book, I sought to greatly avoid assumptions about events for which we do not have credible information. In writing this book, I sought to greatly avoid assumptions about events for which we do not have credible information.

The method used to write this book is this: first, after reading the sources quoted in Chapter 40, I made samples that relate to Bulgarian   history.  This required a revision of the individual chapters to put the events in the right context and interlinks with each other. This was the most interesting part of the work.

Chapter 37 provides brief information about Tsarigrad (Constantinople). They are necessary in order to better understand the numerous unsuccessful attempts of the Bulgarians to take over this city.

Chapter 38 presents information on the measurement unites used by the old authors and their translation into the measurement unites used today. An important part of this chapter is also the section on chronologies used by various authors. Very often events are dated with the given year of the reign of one Roman emperor or another. That is why a table of East Roman emperors is provided, making it easier to check the dates. In the dating based on astronomical phenomena, which is by the way the most accurate, I have used the tables of the American Astronautical Agency.                                                                                                                        

The quoted text of the old authors is always in quotation marks. I use brackets in such text to introduce my own clarifications, without indicating that these are the author"s notes. Chapter 40 contains the literature cited. The citation of sources in a book is most often followed by two numbers, one denoting the volume number and the other the page number. When the volume is a single volume, only the page is indicated. The years after the birth of Christ are given only by a number only. The years before the birth of Christ are given by a number followed by BC.

The spelling of personal names varies across linguistic traditions. This should not disturb us. I will preserve the original record in the quotations in order not to alter their originality, but in my text I will use names related to the Bulgarian linguistic tradition.

The book ends with information about the uprising of Asen and Peter and the liberation of Bulgaria from Byzantine rule.

I hope the book will find a place in the library of the educated and open-minded Bulgarian, to serve him as a reference for information from the old authors who have reached us about various events in our history. It can also be a valuable reference material for pupils, students, researchers, and teachers.

Nikolay Ivanov Kolev (Gutev)





Table of Contents

1. Foreword

A word of praise for Gancho Tsenov

Works of Gancho Tsenov (1870-1949)

2. A little geophysics and genetics

3. A Brief Guide to the Events Leading to the Expansion of the Bulgarian State in the Balkans

4. The peoples who expanded Bulgaria into the Balkans were the Huns

4.1 Kubrat 604-664

4.2 Great Bulgaria. The Bulgarians are the Unogundurs and Kotragi, who are a Hunnic people

4.3 From Thrace to Hindu Kush and back to the Caucasus and Thrace

4.4 The Cimmerian brothers Utigur and Kutrigur

4.5 Bulgarians are descendants of Achilles" Myrmidons

4.6 The Bulgarians are the descendants of the Peonians, who are the descendants of Achilles" Myrmidons

4.6.1 From Galata to Crimea, the Bosphorus Empire

4.6.2 From Galata to Central and Western Europe

4.7 Achilles" father - ruler of myrmidons and dolopes, the Dulo clan

4.8 Romans conquer Peonia in Epirus, migration of survivors along the Middle Danube, Pannonia is "relocated" Peonia

4.9 Masageti or Besigeti - Huns - Bulgarians

4.10 Sarmatians - Huns - Bulgarians

4.11 The relationship between ancient Scythians, Getae, Huns and Bulgarians

4.12 The relationship between the ancient Scythians and the Parthians - today"s Persians

4.13 The relationship between ancient Scythians with Bactria and Sogdiana

4.14 Hunnu

4.15 Khazars and Bulgarians, Khazar state

4.15.1 4th century BC to the 7th century, the language of the Khazars

4.15.2 Fall of Sogdiana in 565. Resettlement of Euthalites in Khazaria and Bulgaria

4.15.3 Relocation of Great Bulgaria to the West and South under the pressure of Khazaria

4.15.4 Geographical location of Khazaria

4.15.5 State structure of Khazaria

4.15.6 Judaism in Khazaria

4.15.7 Khazaria, Bulgaria and Byzantium

4.15.8 End of the Khazar state

5. The Getae or Goths before the reign of Attila

5.1 Thracians а Getae а Dacians, Goths: Besi-Goths, Ostro-Goths, Vandals, Gepids а Slavs

5.2 How did the Getae become Goths and the Goths Slavs?

5.3 The Getae are not Germans, therefore the Goths are not Germans

5.4 Legends about the origin of the Huns from the Getae

5.5 Before the Trojan War in 1183 BC

5.6 Trojan War, a war between Thracians and Greeks in coalition with other Thracians in 1183 BC

5.7 The defeat of the Cyrus Persians at in 530 BC

5.8 Darius" campaign against the Getae in 513-512 BC

5.9 Xerxes" failed attempt to finish the work of Darius in 480 BC

5.10 Perdiccas II, Philip the Great, Alexander the Great and the Getae in 432-323 BC

5.11 The successor of Alexander the Great and the Getae

5.12 Burevista and the Romans

5.13 The poet Ovid"s account of the population of the Black Sea in the vicinity of the Danube around the Nativity of Christ

5.14 Trajan, Gallienus, Aurelian and the Getae

5.15 About the culture of the old Geth

5.16 Return of the Ostrogoths to the Balkans

5.16.1 Summary of the Gothic invasions of the Balkans from 238 to 337

5.16.2 Old authors on the Gothic invasions of the Balkans from 238 to 337

5.16.3 Constantine the Great and the Goths, the religion of the Goths became the state religion

5.17 Neighbours of the Goths

5.18 Civil war in the Gothic state

5.19 The Huns conquer the Ostrogoths

5.20 Visigoths settle in Mysia and become Christians

5.21 The Wesegoths revolt. Death of Emperor Valens on 9 August 378

5.22 Theodosius" war with the Visigoths and the treaty with them

6. Huns-Bulgarians, the Empire of Attila

6.1 Who is Attila?

6.2 Joint reign of Bleda and Attila

6.3 Attila, wars

6.4 Envoys, capital of Attila, conspiracy against him

6.5 Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, 451

6.6 The Death of Attila

6.7 The heritage of Attila

6.7.1 The Battle of the Nations in Pannonia at the River Neda

6.7.2 The Gepids settle in Dacia

6.7.3 Huns, Alans and other peoples settle this side of the Danube

6.7.4 Minor Goths inhabit the Nikopol area

6.7.5 And which peoples remained or settled in Pannonia?

6.8 Relations between the Huns and Persia

6.8.1 The wars of 305-313

6.8.2 The wars in 395

6.8.3 The wars of Hedigerd II in 438-457

6.8.4 The wars of Peroz with the Huns in 459-484

6.8.5 Christianity in Persian Lasika in 526, a new Hunnic intervention in Asia

6.8.6 Боа, персийска принцеса и царица на хуните

6.8.7 Whether Irnik and Wallach are not the same person?

7. Ostrogoths and Bulgarians after the death of Attila

7.1 The Ostrogoths ravage Illyricum. Theodoric - hostage in Constantinople

7.2 Ostrogoths war again with Huns, death of Valamir

7.3 Ostrogoths at war with Germanic peoples, the return of Theodoric from Constantinople

7.4 The First Battle of Theodoric the Great in 472

7.5 The Ostrogoths settled within Illyricum, Macedonia and Thessaly

7.6 Theodorich Tiudimirov in Mysia

7.7 Goths in their quest for power in Constantinople

7.8 Who is Mundo?

7.9 The Goths take over Sirmium

7.10 War against Sabinian in 505, Mundo in alliance with Theodoric the Great

7.11 Ode to the Bravery of Goths and Bulgarians

7.12 Theodoric reigned in Italy and Spain

7.13 After the death of Theodoric the Great Mundo switched to the side of Byzantium in 529

7.14 Suppression of the Nika rebellion in 532

8. Early Christianity in the Balkans; Bulgarian alphabet; Religious wars

8.1 Paul the Apostle

8.2 The Greeks and early Christianity

8.3 Spread of Christianity in the Balkans

8.4 Christianity under the Huns?

8.5 Constantine the Great and the Council of Nicaea

8.6 The Council of Sofia, splitting the churches

8.7 Julian the Apostate

8.8 The Alphabet of the Getae, the Genius of Urfil

8.9 Christianity on the northern coast of the Black Sea

8.10 The struggle of the Greeks against the Arians

8.11 The Religious Civil War, Vitalian

8.11.1 Comes Marcellinus on the rebellion of Vitalian

8.11.2 Theophanes the Confessor on the rebellion of Vitalian

8.11.3 John Malala on the rebellion of Vitalian

8.11.4 John of Antioch on the rebellion of Vitalian

8.11.5 Georgi Kedrin and Ioan Skilitsa on the rebellion of Vitalian

8.12 Attempt to convert the Bosporan Bulgarians

8.13 Archdiocese First Justiniana

9. Justinian"s policy towards Kutriguri and Utiguri and the Pannonian Hun-Avars

9.1 Goths ask Justinian for a bishop in 548, envoys

9.2 Civil war in Great Bulgaria between Kutriguri and Utiguri

9.3 The march of the Kutrigurian ruler Zabergan through Thrace to Constantinople in 548

9.4 The Kutrigurs fought at Chersonesos and in Hellas

9.5 Slav allies of Zabergan. Their attacks in 548, 549 and 550

9.6 Again a quarrel between Kutriguri and Utiguri provoked by Justinian

9.7 Pannonian Hun-Avars, conquerors of Gepids, Kutrigurs and Utigurs

10. Avars and Bulgarians: avaro-bulgarian alliance

10.1 Ogori, Hun, Wari, Avari, Bayowari

10.2 The barbarians defeated the Severians in 464 and drove them from their lands

10.3 Bulgarians are at latest from the 4th century in the Balkans

10.4 The Avars were a Hunnic and Bulgarian people by descent. Settlement in Mysia

10.5 Avars subjugate Utigurs and Kutrigurs

10.6 Settlement of Bulgarians and Avars in Pannonia

10.7 Other peoples from Hun and Var joined the Avars in Pannonia

10.8 The First Avar War against Byzantium in 539-545

10.8.1. Chalcidian War in 539

10.8.2 Constantinople War in 542-543

10.8.3 Peloponnesian War in 545

10.9 Slavic attack on Niš 550

10.10 The Second Avar War against Byzantium in 558-559

10.11 Sensation for the Byzantine public - Avar delegation in Constantinople

10.12 Avars and Slavs

10.13 Settlement of the Peloponnese with Slavs in 581-585. The Avar war against the Slavs of the Transdanubia in 578-582

10.14 Avars take over Sirmium

10.14.1 Preparing for war in 578

10.14.2 Bayan buys time with negotiations to complete Sava bridge

10.14.3 Emperor"s failed attempt to make peace with Bayan

10.14.4 The Empire lost Sirmium in 582

10.15 Permanent settlement of Slavs in the Peloponnese in 582

10.16 First attack on Thessaloniki by Slavs led by Hatsun in 582

10.17 Conquest of Augusta, a fortress at the mouth of the Ogosta River, west of Oryahovo and Viminacium, in 582

10.18 Conquest of Singidunum in 583

10.19 Conquest of Anchialos in 584

10.20 Invasion of the Slavs to the Long Wall in 581-584

10.21 Second attack on Thessaloniki by Avars, Bulgarians and Slavs in 584

10.22 Third attack on Thessaloniki in 586 - reconnaissance campaign

10.23 Conquest of Bononia (Vidin) in 587

10.24 The return of the Avars to present-day Northern Bulgaria in 587

10.25 Re-invasion of the Avars in Thrace and their defeat in 587

10.26 Near Adrianople to Constantinople in 592

10.27 Priscus" campaign against the Slavs across the Danube in 593

10.28 Bulgarians near Nove, today Svishtov, defeat in 597 Roman legion

10.29 The commander Priscus replaces Peter and marches across the Danube in 597

10.30 Conquest of Dalmatia in 599 by the Avars, arrival of the Croats in Dalmatia

10.31 Turks around the Alps? What are these Turks, and do they have anything at all in common with the Altaic Turks?

10.32 Avar and Roman troops at Tomi in 600

10.33 Mauricius orders Comentiolus to hand over the rebellious Roman army to the Avars. Awars again in Thrace in 600

10.34 The defeat of the Avars at Viminacium in 601

10.35 War of the Avars and Romans against the Slavs in 602

10.36 Fourth attack on Thessaloniki in 602 by the awars

10.37 The treacherous deed of the Avar Khagan in 619

10.38 Peace with the Avars and campaign against Persia in 621-622

10.39 Western Slavs take advantage of the Avars" campaign against Constantinople in 623

10.40 March of Avars, Bulgarians and Slavs against Constantinople in 626

10.40.1 Description of Patriarch Nikephoros

10.40.2 Description according to "The Paschal Chronicle"

10.40.3 Description of Theophanes the Confessor

10.41 Bulgarians fought their independence from the Avars

10.41.1 Unsuccessful attempt of the Bulgarians to take the Avar throne in 632

10.41.2 The successful uprising of Kubrat in 634

10.41.3 Settlement of Bulgarians in Italy in 663

10.42 Fifth attack on Thessaloniki by Slavs in 645-647

10.43 The uprising of Kuber against the Avars and the expansion of Bulgaria to the Bitola field after 679. Sixth attack on Thessaloniki

10.44 Avars and Bulgarians in Pannonia and their western neighbours

10.44.1 Langobards and Bulgarians

10.44.2 Franks and Avars

10.45 The war of the Arabs against Constantinople in 673-680

10.46 Peace between Avars and Byzantines in 680

10.47 The Franks fought a devastating war with the Avars under Charlemagne in 791-799

10.48 Fortification of the Avar capital

10.49 Bulgarians completely destroyed the Avars under Krum in 803-814

11. Communications of the old authors about the Bulgarians in the Balkans

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The oldest records of Bulgarians in Europe

11.2.1 The Trojan War

11.2.2 The Macedonians, the greatest propagators of Hellenic culture, are not Greeks but Thracians, descendants of the Pelasgians

11.2.3 Formation of Getae and Hun ethnic groups around the time of Alexander

11.2.4 Philip and Alexander of Macedonia, Thrako-Illyrians rejected to the Ocean             

11.2.5 The Gauls return from the Ocean to the Balkans and Asia Minor

11.2.6 The Legends of the Origin of the Bulgarians, recorded by Spyridon of Gabrovo

11.2.7 Gods of the Bulgarians before Christianity recorded by Dobri Voynikov

11.3 The oldest records of the Bulgarians in Asia

11.4 The first century

11.5 The second century

11.6 The Third Century

11.7 The fourth century

11.8 The fifth century

11.8.1 Bulgarians living in Thrace and threatened Constantinople in 447

11.8.2 Bulgarian army recruited against the Goths in 488

11.8.3 Bulgaria controlled the area from the Tisza River to Kiev after 491

11.8.4 War of Byzantium for the liberation of Thrace from the Bulgarians. Major victory of the Bulgarian army near the Cherna River in 495-499

11.8.5 Bulgarians settle in Italy

11.9 The Sixth Century

11.9.1 Massive Bulgarian invasion of the Balkans in 501-503

11.9.2 Bulgarians and Goths jointly fought under Vitalian against Byzantium in 513-518

11.9.3 12 000 Bulgarian cavalry came from Great Bulgaria to Pannonia in 526

11.9.4 Battles between Bulgarians and Byzantines at the Yantra River in 535

11.9.5 Mundo captured the city of Salona in 536 for Byzantium

11.9.6 War of Avaria and Bulgaria against Byzantium in 539

11.9.7 Mundo passes into the service of Byzantium as governor of Illyricum. Resistance of the Bulgarian population in 540

11.9.8 Boris inflicts a final defeat on Justinian and forces him to pay tribute in 540

11.9.9 The death of Mundo, after 540

11.9.10 Byzantium attacked the Gothic state in Italy with Bulgarian soldiers in 548

11.9.11 Bulgarians and Lombards in 550-568

11.9.12 Large-scale military actions of Bulgarians against Constantinople before 582

11.9.13 The Avars came to Europe from Great Bulgaria and were a Hunnic and Bulgarian people

11.9.14 Participation of the Bulgarians in the Avar-Bulgarian war against Byzantium between 597 and 601

11.10 Seventh century, the last joint attack on Constantinople by Avars, Bulgars, Gepids, Slavs and Persians in 625

12. Expansion of Bulgaria in Lower Mysia in 680

12.1 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

12.2 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

12.3 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

12.4 Information from the Annals of Manasiy

12.5 Information of Simeon Logothete

12.6 Information of Leo Deacon

13. Kuber

14. Asparuh 633-694

14.1 Asparuh and Kuber defending what they conquered against Justinian II in Illyria and Thrace in 688

14.1.1 The Narrative of Siegebert

14.1.2 The narrative of Georgi Kedrin and Ioan Skilitsa

14.1.3 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

14.1.4 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

14.1.5 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

14.1.6 The Narrative of Paisii Hilendarski

14.2 Mauricea. Bulgarians fought on Muhammad"s side in 693

14.2.1 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

14.2.2 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

14.2.3 The Narrative of Leo the Grammarian

14.2.4 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

14.3 Paisiy Hilendarski"s account of the death of Asparuh in 694

15. Tervel 694-715

15.1 Tervel returned Justinian to the throne in 705

15.1.1 The Narrative of Paul Deacon

15.1.2 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

15.1.3 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

15.1.4 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

15.1.5 References of other authors

15.2 Justinian Rinomet breaks peace with the Bulgarians, Bulgarian victory at Anchialos in 708

15.3 Tervel in vain sent military aid to Justinian II in 711

15.4 Tervel at the Golden Gate in 712

15.5 Arabs besieged Constantinople in 715

15.5.1 Attempted coup of deposed emperor Artemius who asks Tervel for help 715. Thessaloniki  is under Bulgarian rule

15.5.2 Byzantium"s request for help against the Arabs 715

15.5.3 Peace treaty between Bulgaria and Byzantium signed between 715 and 717

15.5.4 A scary winter in 717

15.6 The Bulgarians defeated the Muslim Arabs who besieged Constantinople in 715-718

16. Kormisosh 712-760, Vineh 753-760

17. Unknown ruler 714-742 of the Dulo clan

18. Sevar 744-759

18.1 Bulgarians at the Long Wall. First campaign of Constantine V Compronimus against Bulgaria in 754-756

18.2 Second campaign of Constantine V Copronymus against the Slavinians in Macedonia

in 758-759

18.3 Third unsuccessful campaign of Constantine V Copronymus in Bulgaria in 759-760

19. Telts 760-763 and his ill-fated war with Byzantium in 763

19.1 Black Sea freezes from extraordinary cold 762/763

19.2 Civil war in Bulgaria. Slavs left the Bulgarian lands en masse. Fourth campaign of Constantine V against Bulgaria. Defeat of the Bulgarian army at Anchialos on 30 June 763

19.2.1 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

19.2.2 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

19.2.3 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

20. Sabin 762-763 and his flight to Byzantium

20.1 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

20.2 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

20.3 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

21. Pagan (Boyan) 764-765

21.1 Policy of Byzantium towards the Slavs

21.2 Constantine V"s fifth and sixth campaigns against Bulgaria in 764 and 765        

21.2.1 The Narrative of Anastasius the Librarian

21.2.2 The Narrative of Patriarch Nikephoros

21.2.3 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

21.3 Great drought in 767

22. Tellerig 770-778

22.1 Constantine V"s seventh campaign by land and sea against Bulgaria in January 774. Terrible defeat of the Byzantine army at Aheloy

22.2 Unsuccessful attempt by Tellerig to bring the Berzites to Northern Bulgaria in October 774

22.3 Eighth naval campaign of Constantine V against Bulgaria in 775

22.4 Ninth naval campaign of Constantine V against Bulgaria in 775-776

22.5 Tellerig abdicated the throne and moved to Constantinople in 777

23. Kardam 778-807

23.1 Slavs in Greece became taxpayers of Byzantium in 783

23.2 Byzantium restored its authority over Zagora in 784

23.3 The Byzantines suffered defeat by the Bulgarians at the Struma River in 789

23.4 The Byzantines suffered defeat by the Bulgarians at Provat in 791

23.5 The Byzantines suffered defeat by the Bulgarians at Markeli in 792

23.6 Constantine VI refused to pay tribute to the Bulgarians in 796

23.7 Akamir, the prince of the Slavs, prepares a plot against Empress Irene

23.8 Franks and Avars at the time of Charlemagne and Kardam

24. Krum 807-814

24.1 Destruction of the Avar state. Krum"s Laws

24.2 Nikephoros set out against the Bulgarians in 807

24.3 Charlemagne ultimately defeats the Avars

24.4 Krum"s successful march to the Struma valley in 809

24.5 Krum conquered Serdica in 809. Nikephoros displaces Romans in Slavic areas

24.6 Byzantium made peace with the Franks in 811. War between Franconia and Bulgaria

24.7 The atrocities of Nicephorus and the victory of Krum in 811

24.7.1 The Narrative of Theophanes the Confessor

24.7.2 Anonymous Vatican Narrative

24.7.3 The Continuator of Theophanes

24.8 The Fate of Stavrakius

24.9 Michael I Rangave"s refusal to accept Krum"s second peace proposal in 811. Krum captures Mesembria

24.10 Krum conquered Debelt in 812. The Romans leave the Thracian fortresses

24.11 Krum inscriptions

24.12 The Bulgarians conquer Adrianople on 22 June 813

24.13 The Byzantines want help from the Franks against the Bulgarians

24.14 Krum besieges Constantinople on 19 July 813

24.15 Assassination attempt on Krum during peace negotiations in late July 813

24.16 Krum devastates Thrace

24.17 The conquest of Adrianople in August 813

24.18 New attack and kidnapping of captives in the warm winter of 813/814

24.19 Crum prepares a final showdown with Constantinople in March 814. Death of Krum on

11 April 814

24.20 The famous captive from the conquered Adrianople

25. Omurtag 822-831

25.1 On the Structure of the State

25.2 Omurtag"s only war with Byzantium, peace treaties between Omurtag and Leo V

25.2.1 The war in 814 according to Joseph Genesius

25.2.2 The War of 814 according to Skilitsa and Kedrin

25.2.3 The war in 814 according to the Continuator of Theophanes

25.2.4 Comment

25.2.5 Oath-taking ceremonies at the conclusion of the 30-year peace treaty in 814

25.2.6 Text of the 30-year peace treaty. The southern border of Bulgaria in 814

25.2.7 Confirmation of the annual peace treaty in 820

25.2.8 The Peace of Omurtagh

25.3 Omurtag helped Michael to suppress the rebellion of Thomas the Slav in 820-823

25.4 War on the Dnieper

25.5 Slavic peoples renounce the alliance with the Bulgarians and side with the Franks in 819

25.6 Omurtag sent envoys to Emperor Ludwig

25.7 The Bulgarians appointed their governors in Pannonia in 827

25.8 The Bulgarians ravaged Upper Pannonia in 828

26. Malamir 831-836

27. Presian 836-852

27.1 War with the Smolyans

27.2 Attitudes towards the Western Slavs

27.3 Return of citizens of Adrianople captured by Krum to Macedonia in 836

27.4 Bulgarian-Serbian relations, Presian lost a war with young Serbia in 840

28. Boris or John-Michael 852-888, 893

28.1 Peace with Byzantium

28.2 Attempt of the Kievan Russians to help the opponents of Christianity

28.3 The war with the Croats in 874

28.4 Relations with the peoples of Central Europe

28.5 Relations with Serbia under Tsar Boris

28.6 Conversion of the unbaptized Bulgarians

28.6.1 The conversion according to "The Miracle of St. George and the Bulgarian"

28.6.2 Conversion according to John the Baptist

28.6.3 The Conversion according to the Continuator of Theophanes

28.6.4 The Conversion according to the "Chronicle of Leo the Grammarian"

28.6.5 The Conversion according to Nestor

28.6.6 The Conversion according to the Annals of Manassiy

28.7 Foreign Bishops in Danube Bulgaria

28.7.1 Roman Bishops in Bulgaria

28.7.2 The German Bishops in Bulgaria

28.7.3 Greek Bishops in Bulgaria

28.7.4 Nevertheless, why did Boris make Christianity the state religion?

28.8 Beginning of the Magyar invasion of Europe

28.9 Relations with the Germans

28.10 Relations with the Pannonian Slavs, Arnulf allied with the Bulgars against Svetopolk in 883

28.11 Where did the Magyars come from before they conquered their present lands?

28.12 Magyars and Germans liquidate Svetopolk"s state in Moravia

29. Cyril and Methodius

29.1 The Alphabet

29.2 Cyril

29.2.1 Education

29.2.2 Proposal for a senior government post

29.2.3 Lecturer in Constantinople

29.2.4. The dispute with the iconoclasts

29.2.5 Mission to Baghdad in 851

29.2.6 Methodius governor of the Slavic province 836-851

29.2.7 The Khazar Mission 852

29.2.8 Working on the Slavonic writing with Methodius in Olympus, Asia Minor 853-863

29.2.9 The Moravian Mission 864-867

29.2.10 The dispute in Venice in 868

29.2.11 Rome 868-869

29.2.12 The Deeds of The Brothers in the Czechia

29.3 Methodius

29.4 Which books were translated by Constantine and Methodius?

29.5 The language of translations

30. Simeon 891-927

30.1 Youth

30.2 Structure of the Bulgarian State under Simeon

30.3 Moving the market from Constantinople to Thessaloniki and the war between Bulgarians and Romans in 894-896

30.3.1 The War according to the Continuator of Theophanes

30.3.2 War according to Herman of Augia

30.3.3 The War according to the Fulda Chronicles

30.3.4 War according to the Continuator of George Monk

30.3.5 The war according to Constantine Porphyrogenites

30.3.6 The war according to Bulgarian sources

30.4 The conquest of the Bulgarian vassal principalities on the Tisza and the Transylvania by the Hungarians

30.5 The tactics of the Hungarians in their war against Bulgaria

30.6 Thessaloniki captured by Arabs during Bulgarian raids in 904, Bulgarian borders reach Thessaloniki and the Adriatic

30.7 Oleg besieges Constantinople with 2000 ships and cavalry in 907

30.8 Unsuccessful negotiations for the return of the Byzantine captives in 908

30.9 Simeon"s campaign against Constantinople in 913

30.10 New war with Byzantium in 914-915

30.10.1 Byzantium negotiates with the Pechenegs for war against the Bulgars in 914

30.10.2 The first conquest of Adrianople by Tsar Simeon in 915

30.10.3 The Bulgarian army at the Corinth Strait in 915

30.10.4 The Bulgarian army conquered the Thessaloniki and Dracca region in 915

30.11 Defeat of the Byzantine army at Anchialos on 6.VIII.917

30.12 Defeat of the Byzantine army at Catassirti in late August, early September 917             

30.13 Serbia - Province of Bulgaria

30.14 The march of the Bulgarians to the suburbs of Constantinople in 921-922

30.15 Second conquest of Adrianople by Tsar Simeon 921-922

30.16 Simeon in the city of Viza 922-925

30.17 Tsar Simeon"s meeting with Emperor Romanus Lakapin in 924

30.18 Croatia independent of Bulgaria

30.19 Bulgarians on the Volga River converted to Islam in 922

30.20 The death of Simeon in May 927

30.21 Simeon and his brother Michael - founders of the national education system of Bulgaria

31. Tsar Peter, 926 - 30 January 969

31.1 Peace with Byzantium, the wedding of the century between Peter and Mary on 8.X.827

31.2 The legendary Bojan

31.3 The rebellion of Ivan, the brother of King Peter, in 928

31.4 Formation of the Serbian state in 928

31.5 The rebellion of Michael, brother of King Peter, in 930. The Splitting of Bulgaria

31.6 Bulgarian queen Maria goes to Constantinople with her children in August 931

31.7 Raids of the Magyars in Roman land in 934 and 943

31.8 Constantine VII Porphyrogenites sends a message to the Bulgarians in 945

31.9 New attack of the Magyars in 962

31.10 Peace between Bulgarians and Franks

31.11 Peter"s Church Policy and the Growing Byzantine Influence in Bulgaria

32. The war of the Kievan Russians with Bulgaria. Occupation of Eastern Bulgaria by the Russians

32.1 Kievan Rus repeatedly attacked Constantinople and destroyed Khazaria

32.2 Kievan Rus conquered northeastern Bulgaria in 968

32.3 New peace treaty between Byzantium and Bulgaria

32.4 War of Byzantines and Bulgarians against Russians and Bulgarians in Southern Bulgaria

32.5 The war of Byzantium against the Kievan Rus in Northeastern Bulgaria, conquest of Preslav

32.6 Volga Bulgaria successfully repels Kievan Rus"

32.7.  The wars of Russians and Bulgarians on the Volga

32.8. The Mongols conquered Volga Bulgaria in 1223

32.9. The Rus conquered Volga Bulgaria in 1590

33. The war of Byzantium with Western Bulgaria, Samuel

33.1 Civil war in Byzantium from 976 to 988

33.2 Samuel comes to power

33.3 Victory of Samuel at Ihtiman Pass on 17.8.986

33.4 Samuel captures Verea, west of Thessaloniki

33.5 Samuel led successful battles to Thessaloniki in 996

33.6 Larissa in the hands of Samuel

33.7 Samuel loses the Battle of the River Alamana

33.8 The wedding of Samuel"s daughter to the captured Ashot, Drach is taken by treachery

33.9 Plovdiv again in the hands of Byzantium in 1001

33.10 Preslav and Pliska again in the hands of Byzantium in 999

33.11 Ber and Servia again in the hands of Byzantium in 1000

33.12 Voden again into the hands of Byzantium

33.13 Vidin in the hands of Byzantium 1002, Samuel plunders the fair in Adrianople

33.14 Defeat at Vardar, Skopje falls

33.15 Unsuccessful siege of Pernik in 1004

33.16 Samuel"s defeat at Belasitsa on 29 July 1014

33.17 Fall of Melnik, Pelagonia, Prilep and Shtip

33.18 New uprising in Voden and its suppression in 1015

33.19 Conquest of Mughlen and Enotia

33.20 Samuel"s son - Gavril Radomir - became tsar on 15.IX.915

33.21 Death of the last Bulgarian king Ivan Vladislav, capture of Ohrid

33.22 Taking of Strumica and Boyana, the siege of Pernik

33.23 Again Russians fought on the side of Byzantium against Bulgaria in 1017

33.24 Administrative Structure of Conquered Bulgaria

33.24.1 First Charter of Basil II of 1019

33.24.2 Second charter of Basil II of 1020

33.24.3 Third charter of Basil II of 1020

33.25 Decree of Basil II against the Bulgarians

34. Uprisings against Byzantium

34.1 Peter Delyan 1040

34.2 Georgi Manyac

34.3 The Pechenegs in Bulgaria

34.4 Uzi in Bulgaria

34.5 The Revolt of Georgi Vojtech 1071

35. The rebellion of Asen and Peter in 1187. Liberation of Bulgaria

35.1 Account of Georgi Acropolit

35.2 Account of Theodore Scutariot

35.3 Information of Nikita Honyat

35.4 Restoration of Bulgarian culture

35.5 Ivanko, the murderer of Assen

36. Chronology

36.1 Before Christmas

36.2 First century

36.3 Second century

36.4 Third century

36.5 Fourth century

36.6 Fifth century

36.7 The Sixth Century

36.8 The Seventh Century

36.9 The eighth century

36.10 The ninth century

36.11 The tenth century

36.12 The eleventh century

36.12 The twelfth century

37. Constantinople

37.1 Pontus, Propontus, Cimmerian Bosporus, Thracian Bosporus, Bosporus

37.2 The Cherson Bosphorus

37.3 Constantinople

37.3.1 The Thracian marketplace Byzopol or Byzantium

37.3.2 Byzantium becomes a Roman city

37.3.3 Byzantium became the capital of Constantine the Great in 324

37.3.4 The Old Wall of Byzantium

37.3.5 The Wall of Tiberius 14-37

37.3.6 The Wall of Theodosius 413

37.3.7 Anastasius, the Long or Thracian wall 512

37.3.8 The Iron Chain through the Golden Horn

37.3.9 Million

37.4 The foundation of Heraclea

37.5 The Founding of Adrianople

37.6 The foundation of Thessaloniki

37.7 The surroundings of Constantinople

38. Old measurement units

38.1 Time

38.2 Roman and Byzantine Emperors

38.3 Weight

38.4 Monetary units

38.5 Length

39. References

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